Mergers and Acquisitions

Volume X – Accounting for the Cost of Business Combinations Under Government Contracts

Mergers and acquisitions create additional costs and complex accounting issues for government contractors.  There are fees for accounting, legal, and business consultants.  There may be restructuring costs associated with combining business operations.  Segments may be closed and retirement plans may be terminated.  Golden handcuffs and golden parachutes are also common.  Assets may be revalued, goodwill may be created, and there may be changes in cost accounting practices.


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Volume IX – Unclassified Contracts?  Foreign Buyers Still Make a Difference

Last month, we discussed the extent to which a foreign buyer can introduce an unacceptable level of foreign ownership, control, or influence (“FOCI”) that, absent mitigation, will render the target ineligible for the facility security clearances needed to perform classified work. This month, we look at foreign ownership through a broader lens.  Specifically, we consider how the United States regulates the proposed acquisition of a U.S. business by a foreign interest, irrespective of whether classified contracts and classified information may be involved in the planned transfer.


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Volume VIII – Foreign Buyers Do Make a Difference

Not every potential buyer is a U.S. corporation controlled by U.S. interests.  It is important, both for the buyer and the seller, to understand the implications of foreign ownership, control, or influence (“FOCI”) on the feasibility of a sale to foreign interests and the processes that apply to such sales.  As the title of this posting makes clear, foreign buyers do, in fact, make a difference.


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Volume VII—Investing in Small Businesses

Numerous government contracts programs support small businesses.  There are prime contracts set aside for various categories of small business entities.  Agencies have small business contracting goals and take them very seriously.  Prime contractors often are incentivized, through evaluation factors, to propose significant small business participation.  They can also face liquidated damages for failing to make good faith efforts to comply with their small business subcontracting plans.  These programs promote economic growth by incentivizing investment in small business entities.

The primary obstacle to investing in small businesses, from a government contracts perspective, is that it is quite easy to lose small business size status as the result of a corporate transaction.  The difficulties arise from the doctrine of “affiliation.”


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Volume VI —Organizational Conflicts of Interest:  When the Whole Is Less Than the Sum of Its Parts

An organizational conflict of interest (“OCI”) arises when the performance of one contract undermines a contractor’s objectivity or creates an unfair competitive advantage with respect to another contract.  An agency cannot issue an award to a contractor that possesses an OCI unless that OCI has been avoided, mitigated, or waived.  Many government contracts include clauses that require contractors to avoid potential OCIs, to notify the Government of any OCIs that arise after award, and to work with the Government to mitigate any such OCIs.  Some contracts also avoid OCIs proactively by precluding the contractor from performing specific types of work.


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Volume V—The Land Mines Strewn Throughout the Data Room

M&A transactions, like most transactions in life, involve a cost/benefit analysis.  Some cost/benefit analyses are relatively easy to perform.  For example, if I buy an energy efficient appliance, I can calculate the likely savings in energy costs over the useful life of the appliance (the benefit) and compare it with the acquisition cost of the appliance (the cost).  M&A transactions, of course, involve far more complex cost/benefit analyses.  But the key to any such analysis is the ability to identify and quantify the costs and benefits with some measure of confidence.  Every line of business has its own quirks and idiosyncrasies, and they need to be understood when evaluating the acquisition of a company that operates in that line.  More than most, the business of government contracting is replete with such quirks and idiosyncrasies, and they can have a dramatic effect on the “cost” side of the cost/benefit analysis.


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Volume IV – Key Issues in Government Contracts Due Diligence

This posting is the fourth in our ten-part series on unique issues that arise in connection with mergers and acquisitions involving government contractors and subcontractors.  Parts 1 through 3 focused on the structure of the transaction and the implications of that structure on the transfer of pending contracts and proposals.  This posting, Part 4, introduces some of the most important issues that potential buyers should consider and address during the due diligence and negotiation process.  The posting is not intended to be a detailed “due diligence checklist,” but rather a high level overview of certain key factors that are likely to impact the “go/no go” decision and the buyer’s valuation of the target company.
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Volume III—What Happens to Pending Proposals?

Thus far in this ten-part series, we have discussed whether and how existing contracts with the Government can be transferred to the buyer or surviving entity when an acquisition, merger, or consolidation occurs. Today, we leave the world of existing contracts and turn to bids and proposals that are pending when the deal closes.  What happens to those as-yet-unaccepted offers?  Is there anything you can do to enhance the likelihood that the Government will be willing to accept such offers notwithstanding the organizational change?  And, if you are in second place when the award is made to a “reorganized” offeror, are there possible protest grounds lurking in the deal that you could assert to obtain the award?
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Volume II – Obtaining Consent to Assign a Government Contract

This posting is the second in a ten-part series on unique issues that arise in the acquisition and disposition of a company that performs government contracts or subcontracts.  Part 1 focused on the types of deal structures that are subject to the anti-assignment statutes, and therefore require Government consent.  We explained that consent is not required for stock purchases, is required for asset sales, and may be required for other types of transactions, including mergers.  This posting, Part 2, addresses the consent process, including the who, what, when, and how of obtaining a novation agreement.  It also includes practical tips, based on our experience, for navigating the novation process efficiently and successfully.
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Volume I – The Structure of the Deal and Government Consent

With today’s posting, we begin a ten-part series on unique issues that arise in connection with the acquisition or disposition of a company that performs government contracts or subcontracts. These issues obviously come into play when the target company fits the bill as an established “government contractor,” replete with all of the infrastructure, systems, and processes that one normally associates with that term.  They also come into play, however, in connection with companies that sell standard commercial items to the Government under the auspices of the General Services Administration’s schedule contracts and companies that operate at all tiers within the Government’s supply chain.  They apply whether such companies are selling specialized products manufactured  to Government specifications or commercial items adopted or adapted for use, ultimately, by the Government.
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By Louis Victorino and Jonathan Aronie (originally published in the San Diego Business Journal)

It has been noted, the more things change, the more they stay the same. In the world of Government Contracts Law, however, the more things change, the more the phone rings. And while we’re only a few weeks into 2013, the phone has been ringing off the hook. Here are a few of the reasons why.


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